The appropriate use of diamond blades is crucial to providing affordable solutions for the construction industry. The Concrete Sawing and Drilling Association, which happens to be dedicated to the advancement and professionalism of concrete cutting operators, offers operators the instruments and skills required to understand and make use of diamond blades for optimal performance. CSDA accomplishes this goal by offering introductory and advanced training programs for operators with hands-on training in flat sawing, wall sawing, core drilling, wire sawing and hand sawing. In addition they offer a number of safety and training videos in addition to a safety handbook in support in their effort to coach sawing and drilling operators. This article will discuss using diamond tools, primarily saw blades, and give recommendations for their cost-effective use.
Diamond is well known as the hardest substance recognized to man. One could think that an operator of Core cutting machine could take advantage of the hardness characteristics of diamond to maximum advantage, i.e. the harder the more effective. In practice, this may not be always true. If the operator is cutting or drilling concrete, stone, masonry or asphalt, the diamonds must wear so that you can maximize the performance of the cutting tool. This post will examine the role diamond plays in cutting tools and the way an operator may use analytical ways to maximize the usage of the diamond cutting tools thereby increasing productivity and maximizing the lifestyle in the tool.
Diamond crystals could be synthetically grown in a multitude of qualities, shapes and sizes. Synthetic diamond has replaced natural diamond in almost all construction applications because of this power to tailor-make your diamond to the specific application. Diamond is grown with smooth crystal faces in the cubo-octahedral shape along with the color is generally from light yellow to medium yellow-green. Diamond is additionally grown to a specific toughness, which generally increases because the crystal size decreases. The dimensions of the diamond crystals, commonly referred to as mesh size, determines the number of diamond cutting points exposed at first glance of any saw blade. On the whole, larger mesh size diamond is commonly used for cutting softer materials while smaller mesh size diamond is used for cutting harder materials. However, there are several interrelated factors to consider and they general guidelines might not exactly always apply.
The amount of crystals per volume, or diamond concentration, also affects the cutting performance in the diamond tool. Diamond concentration, commonly referred to as CON, is a measure of the volume of diamond found in a segment based on volume. A typical reference point is 100 CON, which equals 72 carats per cubic inch. Diamond concentration for construction tools is normally in the plethora of 15-50 CON. A 32 CON would mean that the tool has 23 carats per cubic inch, or about 4 carats per segment. Improving the diamond concentration by offering more cutting points will make the bond act harder as well as increasing diamond tool life. Optimum performance is possible when the diamond tool manufacturer utilizes his / her experience and analytical capabilities to balance diamond concentration as well as other factors to accomplish optimum performance for the cutting operator.
Diamond Shape & Size
Diamond shapes may differ from tough blocky cubo-octahedral crystals (Figure 1) to more friable crystals with less well-defined geometry (Figure 2). Diamond crystals with blocky shapes and sharp edges are generally more appropriate for stone and construction applications. The blocky shape provides greater potential to deal with fracturing, and therefore delivers the maximum quantity of cutting points and minimum surface contact. This has a direct impact in the lower horsepower need for the transformer core cutting machine as well as to increase the life to the tool. Lower grade diamond is less costly and usually has more irregularly shaped and angular crystals and is also more best for less severe applications.
Synthetic diamond might be grown in a variety of mesh sizes to fit the desired application. Mesh sizes are typically in the plethora of 20 to 50 U.S. Mesh (840 to 297 microns) in construction applications. The dimensions of the diamond crystals, along with the concentration, determines the volume of diamond which will be exposed higher than the cutting top of the segments around the blade. The exposure, or height, of diamond protrusion (Figure 3) influences the depth of cut of each crystal, and subsequently, the potential material removal rate. Larger diamond crystals and greater diamond protrusion can lead to a potentially faster material removal rate if you have enough horsepower available. Typically, when cutting softer materials, larger diamond crystals are utilized, and when cutting harder materials, smaller crystals are employed.
The diamond mesh size in a cutting tool also directly relates to the amount of crystals per carat along with the free cutting ability to the diamond tool. Smaller the mesh size, the greater the diamond crystals, while larger mesh size means smaller diamond. A 30/40 Mesh blocky diamond has about 660 crystals per carat, while a 40/50 Mesh diamond may have 1,700 crystals per carat.
Specifying the proper mesh dimensions are the task of the diamond tool manufacturer. Producing the correct number of cutting points can increase the lifetime of the tool and reduce the machine power requirements. For instance, a diamond tool manufacturer might want to utilize a finer mesh size to improve the number of cutting crystals with a low concentration tool which improves tool life and power requirements.
Diamond Impact Strength
All diamond will not be exactly the same, and this is also true for the potency of diamonds found in construction applications. The power of the diamond to stand up to a positive change load is normally called diamond impact strength. Other diamond-related factors, for example crystal shape, size, inclusions and the distribution of these crystal properties, play a role in the impact strength also.
Impact strength may be measured and is also commonly referred to as Toughness Index (TI). Furthermore, crystals are also subjected to very high temperatures during manufacturing and sometimes through the cutting process. Thermal Toughness Index (TTI) may be the way of measuring the ability of a diamond crystal to stand up to thermal cycling. Subjecting the diamond crystals to high temperature, letting them go back to room temperature, then measuring the change in toughness makes this measurement useful to a diamond tool manufacturer.
The maker must pick the best diamond depending on previous experience or input from the operator in the field. This decision is situated, in part, on the tool’s design, bond properties, material to get cut and Straight core cutting machine. These factors must be balanced by your selection of diamond grade and concentration which will give you the operator with optimum performance at the suitable cost.
Generally speaking, a larger impact strength is essential to get more demanding, harder-to-cut materials. However, always using higher impact strength diamond that is certainly more expensive is not going to always help the operator. It may possibly not improve, and may also degrade tool performance.
A diamond saw blade is made up of a circular steel disk with segments containing the diamond that are connected to the outer perimeter of your blade (Figure 4). The diamonds are held in place from the segment, which is a specially formulated combination of metal bond powders and diamond, that were pressed and heated within a sintering press by the manufacturer. The diamond and bond are tailor-intended to the precise cutting application. The exposed diamonds on top of your segment perform cutting. A diamond blade cuts inside a manner similar to how sand paper cuts wood. As the blade cuts, bond tails are formed dexqpky76 trail behind each diamond (Figure 5). This bond tail provides mechanical support for that diamond crystal. As being the blade rotates throughout the material, the diamonds chip away in the material being cut (Figure 6).
The ideal lifetime of a diamond starts as a whole crystal that becomes exposed throughout the segment bond matrix. As being the blade starts to cut, a little wear-flat develops as well as a bond tail develops behind the diamond. Eventually, small microfractures develop, but the diamond is still cutting well. Then this diamond actually starts to macrofracture, and eventually crushes (Figure 7). This is basically the last stage of a diamond before it experiences a popout, in which the diamond quite literally pops out from the bond. The blade consistently serve as its cutting action is bought out from the next layer of diamonds that are interspersed through the segment.
The metal bond matrix, which can be manufactured from iron, cobalt, nickel, bronze or some other metals in various combinations, is designed to wear away after many revolutions from the blade. Its wear rate is designed so it will wear for a price that may provide maximum retention in the diamond crystals and protrusion through the matrix in order to cut.
The diamond and bond work together and it is as much as the manufacturer to provide the ideal combination based upon input from your cutting contractor given specific cutting requirements. Critical factors both for sides to address will be the bond system, material to become cut and machine parameters. The mix of diamond and bond accomplishes several critical functions.